Enjoyment of Music MUL 2010 (Fall 2008) - Warfield

Review Sheet # 6 - Romantic era Music


This review sheet covers materials presented in Wright, Listening to Music, Chapters 22-23-24-25-26-27-28-29-30, which will be tested in the near future in MUL 2010 (Tuesday, 17 April 2007).

The following concepts and terms in boldface (as well as a few others not specifically listed, but indicated in these review questions) will be included on the third of the three large mid-term tests. You should know all of these terms, including their (1) spelling, (2) definition, and (3) be able to use them correctly in speaking and writing about music.

Dictionary definitions may be found in the glossary section of your textbook or in the Music Materials section of the publisher-sponsored web site that supports your textbook.

Additionally, you should know by sound the nine music examples (Listening Guides, p. 267-8, 271, 273, 281-2, 290-1, 300-1, 308-9, 320-1, & 327) that support this portion of the textbook.



CHAPTER 22

  1. What are some of the basic social and political events that mark the beginnings of the Romantic era?
  2. What are some of the goals of Romantic artists (of all kinds), what sorts of subject matter interest them, and how are these subjects portrayed?
  3. How does the role of the professional musician shift in the 19th century? How does the composer in the 19th century now view him(her)self?
  4. How (and why) do audience attitudes toward music change in the 19th century, and what effect does this have on concert-hall decorum and behavior?
  5. What are some basic traits of music in the Romantic era?
  6. How does the orchestra change in the 19th century, especially when compared to ensembles of the Classic era?
  7. How does the element of virtuosity reflect Romantic era values in the 19th century?
  8. Who was Niccolò Paganini, what instrument did he play, and what sort of performer was he?

CHAPTER 23

  1. Who was Franz Schubert, and where and when did he live?
  2. For what particular musical genre is he best remembered?
  3. What is a "Schubertiad", and of what relevance is it to German art songs?
  4. What is the German word for an "art song", and what are the normal performing forces for such a work?
  5. What are the differences between strophic, through-composed, and modified strophic song forms?
  6. What is the role of the piano in an art song? What are the prelude and postlude in an art song?
  7. What is a song cycle?
  8. Who was Robert Schumann, and where and when did he live?
  9. What was Schumann's initial career goal in music, and why did he not achieve that?
  10. What was Die neue Zeitschrift für Musik, and what did Schumann have to do with this publication?
  11. Who was Schumann's wife? (and not just "Mrs. Schumann")
  12. Who was Clara (Wieck) Schumann, and where and when did she live?
  13. What sort of a musician was she? Specifically, what did she do in music that is so important?

  14. Listening Guide (p. 267-8, Schubert)

  15. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  16. What are its performing forces?
  17. What is the story of "The Erlking", and how is this reflected in the form of the piece?
  18. What are some of the ways in which Schubert makes the story more realistic? How does the piano contribute to this process?

  19. Listening Guide (p. 271, R. Schumann)

  20. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  21. What are its performing forces?
  22. What is the organization of the text of this work, and how is its meaning reflected in the form of the piece?
  23. What does the piano contribute to this piece?

  24. Listening Guide (p. 273, C. Schumann)

  25. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  26. What are its performing forces?
  27. What is the organization of the text of this work, and how is that reflected in the form of the piece?
  28. What does the piano contribute to this piece?

CHAPTER 24

  1. What is program music, and what are its usual performing forces?
  2. What are the four (4) basic kinds of program music, and what is a program?
  3. How does a concert overture resemble the first movement of symphony? What makes it (the overture) programmatic?
  4. What is incidental music and when might it be performed?
  5. What is a program symphony and how does it differ from an "ordinary" symphony?
  6. What is a symphonic poem and how does it differ from an overture?
  7. Who was Hector Berlioz, and where and when did he live?
  8. How was he unlike many earlier composer-musicians, e.g., Mozart, Beethoven, etc.?
  9. How did Berlioz's obsession with the actress Harriet Smithson influence him as a composer?
  10. How is Berlioz's use of the orchestra different from that of almost every other composer before him?
  11. Who was Felix Mendelssohn, and where and when did he live?
  12. What was Mendelssohn's education and training in music like, and what effect did that have on his own music?
  13. How and why was Mendelssohn interested in earlier music, and how did this contribute to making the modern concert hall into a "museum of sound"?

  14. Listening Guide (p. 281-2, Berlioz)

  15. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  16. What are its performing forces?
  17. What is the program of this piece, and what effect does this have upon the form of the symphony? NB. See p. 278-9 for the program and a discussion of it. (and the relevant PowerPoint slides)
  18. What is an idée fixe and how is it related to both the form and the program of this piece? NB. See p. 278 for the idée fixe itself.
  19. What are some specific examples of how the program can heard in the fifth movement of this symphony?

CHAPTER 25

  1. How does the 19th-century piano begin to resemble the modern instrument known today?
  2. How were such things as the frame, the stringing, and the number of keys improved?
  3. How did the marketing of pianos in the 19th century resemble modern (today's) marketing practices?
  4. Who was Frédéric Chopin, and where and when did he live most of his adult life?
  5. What was Chopin's homeland, and what were some ways that his music reflected that?
  6. Who was Franz Liszt, and where and when did he live?
  7. What sort of a performer was Liszt, and what are some of the ways he influenced music in the 19th century

  8. Listening Guide (p. 290-1, Chopin)

  9. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  10. What are its performing forces?
  11. What is the predominant texture of this piece? (What is the relationship between the two hands, and what does that tell you about this music?)
  12. How "steady" is the rhythm, especially between the two hands, and what is this technique or trait called?
  13. How "exact" are the repetitions of the melody (and the accompaniment)?

CHAPTER 26

  1. What two national styles of opera dominate the 19th century? [cf. Chapter 27]
  2. What is the primary focus in Italian opera of the early 19th century?
  3. Who was Gioachino Rossini and what sort of opera did he compose?
  4. What is bel canto and how does this affect the sound of Italian opera? What is the most important element of Italian opera, and what is the function of the orchestra?
  5. What is a "Rossini crescendo" and how does it lead to the cabaletta at the end of a scena?
  6. Who was Giuseppe Verdi, what sorts of works did he compose, and what is his reputation today?
  7. How does Verdi's operatic style differ from that of the earlier bel canto composers?

  8. Listening Guide (p. 300-1, Verdi)

  9. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  10. What are its performing forces (in this excerpt)? How important is the orchestra? How much vocal display do you hear?
  11. What is the story of La Traviata, and what is going on in this particular scene?
  12. How does the structure of this excerpt exemplify the techniques for constructing scenes in Italian operas of the 19th century?
  13. How does the concluding "Sempre libera" reflect Verdi's concern for writing attractive melodies and allowing singers to show off their voices?

CHAPTER 27

  1. What are some ways in which German opera differ from Italian opera in the 19th Century? [cf. Chapter 26]
  2. What sorts of stories and plots are preferred in German opera?
  3. Who was Richard Wagner, what are some of the important facts of his life, and what is his reputation today?
  4. Why did Wagner refer to his operas as Music Dramas What is a Gesamtkunstwerk? What do these concepts suggest about the relationships of the constitutent elements (music, words, acting, costumes, scenary, etc.) of Wagner's music dramas?
  5. What is the relationship of voice to the orchestra in a Wagnerian music drama? Which is more important and tells the story? How is this accomplished? What are Leitmotifs?
  6. What are Der Ring des Nibelungen and Tristan und Isolde?
  7. What is the Bayreuth Festspielhaus (Festival Theater), and why was it built?

  8. Listening Guide (p. 308-9, Wagner)

  9. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  10. What are its performing forces (in this excerpt)? How important is the orchestra? How much vocal display do you hear?
  11. What is the story of Tristan und Isolde, and what is going on in this particular scene?
  12. How does the structure of this excerpt exemplify Wagner's techniques for constructing scenes?
  13. How easily can you determine the tonic (home) note in this excerpt? What does that tell you about Wagner's musical (harmonic) language?

CHAPTER 28

No specific materials wil be taken from this chapter, but you should read it for background information.


CHAPTER 29

  1. What is nationalism, especially as it relates to music and the other arts?
  2. What are some ways by which a nationalistic composer might express his identity in music?
  3. Who was Modest Musorgsky, where was he born and lived, and what effect did that have on his music?
  4. What/who were the "Russian Five" (or "Mighty Handful"), and what was their collective goal?
  5. Who was Antonín Dvorák, where was he born and lived, and what effect did this have on his music?
  6. What are the Slavonic Dances, and what is their importance in Dvorák's career?
  7. What is a Furiant and why might Dvorák use it in his music?
  8. What connection did Dvorák have with the United States, and what sort of work did he do here?

  9. Listening Guide (p. 320-1, M. Musorgsky)

  10. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  11. What are its performing forces? Specifically, for what instrument was this piece originally composed, and what instrument(s) perform it now? How and why did this happen?
  12. What is the "program" of this piece, and how does the first section serve to connect the other parts to one another?
  13. What are some of the ways in which the external ideas (the program) affect the sound of this piece? (What does the composer do to make the program apparent in sound?)

CHAPTER 30

  1. How do conservative composers continue the traditions of the classic era? How does Beethoven's legacy influence 19th-century composers, e.g., how many and what sorts of works are composed?
  2. What is Absolute music? What forms and genres are included under this category (and why)?
  3. Who was Johannes Brahms, and what were some of his earliest influences (whose music did he study and emulate)? What sorts of pieces did he compose?
  4. Why did Brahms have such difficulty composing symphonies, and how did he overcome that problem? In what other classical genres did he compose?
  5. Who was Peter Tchaikovsky, when and where did he live, and what sort of career did he have? What sorts of what did he compose, and for what pieces is he best remembered?
  6. Who was Nadezhda von Meck and what is her importance for the music of Tchaikovsky?

  7. Listening Guide (p. 324, Brahms)

  8. What kind of piece is this, and who composed it?
  9. What are its performing forces (in this excerpt)?
  10. Which movement of the larger work is this one, and what form is used in this movement? How does these fit within classical expectations for such a work?