Hobbes's Method as Background
THE STATE OF NATURE
The result of the resolutive part of the method.
Absolute government - a result of the compositive part of the method
Hobbes's View of Human Nature
Desire/Aversion = Love/Hate
These vary between individual people and within the particular individual. There is no absolute good. There is no good or evil except as each person considers his or her own desires and aversions at any particular time.
Natural Equality expressed in 3 ways:
Equality MUST be overcome
This leads to contention
3 causes of quarrel:
"The first makes men invade for Gain; the second, for Safety; and the third, for Reputation. The first use Violence, to make themselves Masters of othermen's persons, wives, children, and cattle; the second, to defend them; the third, for trifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other sign of undervalue, either direct in their Persons, or by reflection in their Kindred, their Friends, their Nation, their Profession, or their Name."
THE STATE OF WAR
". . . the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Human behavior in the S of N, S of W is NOT SINFUL.
Two cardinal virtues in war - Force & Fraud
There is no such thing as injustice in the S of Nature/S of War
See p. 109, GTIE: Even if there was no historical time period in which a "state of nature" existed, it does not invalidate Hobbes's position.
Note that individual political states are in a constant state of war (whether it consists of actual fighting or the propensity to it).
The right of nature (see GTIE, 110): Everyone
is free to defend himself and to use all means available to do so.
There is NO SIN in the behavior of human beings in the natural condition. We even behave in similar ways when organized society exists.
See also GTIE, p. 112, bottom, where Hobbes points out that in the natural condition, everyone has a right to everything, even to another person's body.
The rational person will wish to leave the condition of war, and
it will be achieved in part by reason, in part by passion.
Reason = recognition of the laws of nature
Passion = emotions inclining a person to peace:
fear of death, desire for things necessary to "commodious living" and hope by one's industry to be able to obtain them.
HOBBESIAN LAWS OF NATURE
See full text of LEV, chapters 13 and 14 of Part I.
A LAW OF NATURE: "A PRECEPT OR GENERAL RULE, FOUND OUT BY REASON, BY WHICH A MAN IS FORBIDDEN TO DO THAT, WHICH IS DESTRUCTIVE OF HIS LIFE, OR TAKETH AWAY THE MEANS OF PRESERVING THE SAME; AND TO OMIT THAT, BY WHICH HE THINKETH IT MAY BE BEST PRESERVED."
Fundamental Law "Every man, ought to endeavor peace, as far as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannot obtain it, that he may seek, and use, all helps, and advantages of war." This means, essentially, to seek peace; and when peace cannot be found, defend yourself.
2nd Law - "A man be willing, when others are so too, as far forth, as for peace, and defense of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself."
3rd. "Men (must) perform their covenants made."
And other laws of nature....
When the right to all things is transferred to the sovereign, all matters of ethics belong to the sovereign, not to the individual. AUTHORIZATION VIEW OF SOVEREIGNTY AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF "WORKABLE" MORAL RULES.
Note: The questions on p. 118 of GTIE should be helpful.