Maps in the New Era

Why do maps change in the modern era?

Scientific transformation: Science moves toward looking for unifying laws, rather than universals. So, there is a law of gravitation that holds everywhere. All laws that hold in one place hold everywhere. Therefore, it could in principle be observed, and it could also in fact be observed, due to telescopes.

Quest for a universal standard of measurement: this is particularly a preoccupation of the Enlightenment.

The growth of interest in social affairs and statistics: Populations are generalized, just as science generalizes nature.

The organization of intellectual activity: Intellectual standards reside in the community of intellectuals. So there is social force to knowledge.

Industrial and commercial development: maps are needed for the identification of resources, figuring out how to transport them, figuring out how to transport workers to the sites of production.