Some definitions of globalization

"[T]he inexorable integration of markets, nation-states, and technologies to a degree never witnessed before-in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than ever before . . . . the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world "

T.L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, 1999, p. 7-8.

The compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole . . . . concrete global interdependence and consciousness of the global whole in the twentieth century"

R. Robertson, Globalization, 1992, p. 8.

"A social process in which the constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede and in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding"

M. Waters, Globalization, 1995, p. 3.

"The historical transformation constituted by the sum of particular forms and instances of . . . . [m]aking or being made global (i) by the active dissemination of practices, values, technology and other human products throughout the globe (ii) when global practices and so on exercise an increasing influence over people's lives (iii) when the globe serves as a focus for, or a premise in shaping, human activities"

M. Albrow, The Global Age, 1996, p. 88.

Integration on the basis of a project pursuing "market rule on a global scale"

P. McMichael, Development and Social Change, 2000, p. xxiii, 149.

"As experienced from below, the dominant form of globalization means a historical transformation: in the economy, of livelihoods and modes of existence; in politics, a loss in the degree of control exercised locally . . . . and in culture, a devaluation of a collectivity's achievements . . . . Globalization is emerging as a political response to the expansion of market power . . . . [It] is a domain of knowledge."

J.H. Mittelman, The Globalization Syndrome, 2000, p. 6.

"World without walls."

Bill Clinton (quoted in Alex MacGillivray, A Brief History of Globalization)

"A multidimensional set of social processes that create, multiply, stretch, and intensify worldwide social interdependencies and exchanges while at the same time fostering in people a growing awareness of deepening connections between the local and the distant."

Manfred Steger, Globalization: A Very Short Introduction, 13