Jennifer Cross's Analysis of Sense of Place

From Cross, Jennifer. "What is Sense of Place?" http://www.western.edu/headwtrs/Archives/headwaters12_papers/cross_paper.html


Relationship

Type of Bond

Process


Biographicalhistorical and familialbeing born in and living in a place, develops over time
Spiritualemotional, intangiblefeeling a sense of belonging, simply felt rather than created
Ideologicalmoral and ethicalliving according moral guidelines for human responsibility to place, guidelines may be religious or secular
Narrativemythicallearning about a place through stories, including: creation myths, family histories, political accounts, and fictional accounts
Commodifiedcognitive (based on choice and desirability)choosing a place based a list of desirable traits and lifestyle preferences, comparison of actual places with ideal
Dependentmaterialconstrained by lack of choice, dependency on another person, or economic opportunity

Levels of Sense of Place

Sense of Place

Satisfaction

Home as Insideness

Local Identity

Type of Attachment

Future Desires


Rootedness Cohesive

high

here (physical, spiritual, emotional)

strong

biographical, spiritual, ideological

continued residence

Rootedness Divided

variable

here and there (physical,spiritual, emotional)

split

biographical
spiritual
dependent

variable

Place Alienation

low

there (physical, spiritual, emotional)

weak

dependent

desire to leave, but unable

Relativity

variable

anywhere

moderate

commodified
(biographical)
(dependent)

to live in ideal place, wherever that may be

Uncommitted Placelessness

(moderate)

anywhere/nowhere

weak

none

no specific expectations of place