3. The primary human faculty in the Middle Ages was the highest actions of the mind: its ability to reflect, to be self-conscious, to rationalize. Everything else was secondary. In the Reformation and the Renaissance, this changes. Now, the emphasis is on the will.

a. In the Renaissance, part of individual action was the fact that we all have a will. Sometimes this will will act rationally, but often it will not. We have to account for our will somehow, and either bring it into line, or harness it. The "passions" become suspect, but they are also harnessed in the new expressions of economic reality. We express our passions, within limits, in public commerce. Indeed, one writer suggests that modern capitalism is just the legitimization and focussing of all seven of the mediaeval deadly sins. Passion is deadly, but also is an intrinsic part of who we are.

b. In the Reformation, there is the Augustinian idea that passion (will) has to be subjugated -- but under what? Not reason, for that is just as tainted as the will. Our will must come under God's will. Then, once our will wills like God's, we have reached true spirituality. Reason follows afterwards.