1. Reaction against Aristotle's compartmentalized knowledge: Aristotle's scientia posited compartmentalized knowledge. The move was toward finding unified or universal knowledge. This happened in several ways:
a. Renaissance: Knowledge is unified by finding common starting principles or axioms which will ground all knowledge (Descartes) or by generalization (Bacon).
b. Reformation, Marginal Science: Suppose that we could find the unifying metaphysical principle underlying contingent reality. This was the route taken by the marginal science people (followers of Hermes), and in another way, by the Reformation. The Reformation focusses on the spirit which animates everything, and flows through, whether we recognize it or not (e.g., Jacob Boehme).