EAST ASIA TIMELINE

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BCE

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8000 Jomon culture in Japan (until 300 BCE)

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2852 Earliest dates for Chinese civilizations; the era of the three great cultural heroes, Fu Hsi, the inventor of writing, Shen Nung, inventor of agriculture, and the Yellow Emperor

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2700 Indus Valley civilization and Harappa culture in India (until 1700 BCE)

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2697 The beginning of the era of the Sage Kings in China: Yao, Shun, and YŁ

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1818 Beginning of Hsia dynasty in China (the first of the "Three Dynasties")

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1500 Aryan invasions of the Indian subcontinent (until 1200 BCE); composition of the earliest hymns of the Rig Veda in India

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1200 Composition of the Rig Veda (until 900 BCE)

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1154 Beginning of Shang (or Yin) dynasty in China

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1115 Beginning of Chou dynasty in China

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900 The great war in India depicted in the Mahabharata ; the later Vedas, Brahmanas, and the early Upanishads (until 500 BCE)

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817 Traditional date for the birth of the Jain savior Parshvanatha

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800 Aryans reach Bihar and Bengal

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600 End of the Brahmana period in India.

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500 Period of Hindu lawbooks, epics, and the development of the six Hindu philosophical systems (from 500 BCE-500 CE)

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483 Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha (563-483 BCE)

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480 First Buddhist Council at Rajagriha.

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468 Death of Vardhamana Mahavira, the great teacher and founder of Jainism

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479 Confucius (551-479 BCE)

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403 Beginning of Warring State Period in China (until 221 BCE)

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391 Mo Tzu (470(?)-391 BCE)

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380 Second Buddhist Council; Buddhism splits into two sects: the Theravada ("The Teachings of the Elders") and the breakaway Mahasanghikas ("members of the Great Order"). Probable date of the Lao Tzu.

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327 Alexander the Great invades India.

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300 Yayoi culture in Japan (until 300 CE)

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298 Chandragupta, the first Maurya emperor and Jain king of India (322-298 BCE)

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289 Mencius or Meng Tzu (372-289 BCE)

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286 Chuang Tzu, second major early founder of Taoism (369-286 BCE)

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237 Ashoka (273-237 BCE), emperor of India, significant patron of Buddhism

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221 Ch'in dynasty in China (until 207)

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202 Han dynasty in China (to 9 CE)

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200 Period of greatest influence of Buddhism and Jainism in India (until 200 CE)

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190 Greek kingdoms in India

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185 Beginning of Shunga dynasty in India

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170 Iranians invade India

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124 Increased use of examinations for public officials in China

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108 Chinese administration in north Korea.

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100 The Bhagavad Gita composed sometime between 100 BCE and 100 CE

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CE

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9 Hsin dynasty in China (9-23 CE)

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25 Latter Han dynasty in China (25-220)

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57 Earliest mention of Japan.

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65 First mention of Buddhism in China

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79 Division of Jainism into Shvetambara and Digambara sects

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100 Rise of Mahayana Buddhism (100-200 CE)

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105 Invention of paper in China.

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220 End of Han dynasty, the Three Kingdoms in China: Wei, Shu, Wu (220-280)

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280 Chin dynasty in China (280-420)

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300 Christian community (from the Nestorian or Syrian sect) existing at Cochin in Southern India; tomb culture and Yamato state in Japan.

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317 North China abandoned to the barbarians.

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335 Chandragupta I (ruled 319-335), first emperor of the second great empire of India, the Guptas.

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440 State patronage of Taoism in China; the Huns under the leadership of Attila invade India

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540 End of Gupta dynasty in India

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542 T'an-luan (476-542), patriarch of Pure Land Buddhist sect.

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552 Introduction of Buddhism into Japan

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562 The Korean kingdom of Silla destroys Japanese power in Korea and sets up the first Korean power.

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575 T'ien-t'ai school of Buddhism founded in China by Chih-k'ai (531-597)

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589 Sui dynasty in China (589-618).

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594 Buddhism declared the state religion of Japan.

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600 Discovery of block printing in China; appearance of Tantricism in Buddhism in India

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618 T'ang dynasty in China (618-906)

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666 Lao Tzu canonized by the T'ang dynasty as Most High Emperor of Mystic Origin

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668 Silla dominates all of Korea.

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693 Chinese empress adopts the Buddhist title, "Divine Empress Who Rules the Universe"

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700 Civil service examinations greatly expanded in China; Buddhism spreads to Tibet and Nepal

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710 Nara period begins in Japan; the first permanent capital of Japan set up in Nara.

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755 An Lu-shan rebellion in China.

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760 Manyoshu , the first major compilation of Japanese poetry

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794 Heian period begins in Japan; capital moved to Heian-kyo (Kyoto).

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800 Kana script developed in Japan.

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845 Official repression of Buddhism in China.

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858 Fujiwara family becomes the first hereditary dictatorship in Japan.

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907 T'ang dynasty falls; period of Disunion in China (until 960)

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960 Sung dynasty (960-1272)

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972 Printing of Buddhist canon begins in China; death of Kuya (903-972), first mendicant to spread Pure Land Buddhist doctrine in Japan

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999 Mahmud of Ghaznin raids India until 1026

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1100 Confucian revival begins in China.

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1132 Ryonin founds the forerunner of Pure Land Buddhism in Japan.

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1191 Eisai brings Zen Buddhism to Japan.

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1192 Muslims defeat the Hindus under Prithivi Raj; Buddhism disappears as an organized religious force in India; Delhi becomes the capital of India; beginning of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan; Yoritomo becomes the first shogun of Japan.

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1200 Chu Hsi (1130-1200)

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1205 Hereditary regency of Japan handed over to the shoguns of the Hojo family.

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1211 Beginning of the reign of Iltutmish, first sultan of Delhi (rules 1211-1236)

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1212 Death of Honen (1133-1212), Japanese Pure Land Buddhist that established full Amidist doctrine

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1227 Mongol destruction of Hsi-Hsia. Death of Ghenghis Khan.

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1253 Dogen (1200-1253), brings the Soto sect of Zen Buddhism to Japan in 1227.

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1260 YŁan (Mongol) dynasty in China. (1260-1368)

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1274 First Mongol invasion of Japan.

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1282 Nichiren (1222-1282), founder of Nichiren Buddhism

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1281 Second Mongol invasion of Japan.

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1310 Southern India conquered by the Delhi sultanate.

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1313 Adoption by the Mongol government of civil service examinations based on the Confucian Classics.

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1333 Hojo regency ends in Japan; direct imperial rule of Japan instituted in Go-Daigo.

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1338 Beginning of the Ashikaga Shogunate in Japan; Ashikaga Takauji becomes shogun.

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1368 Ming dynasty (1368-1644)

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1384 Beginning of No drama in Japan; earliest No dramatist is Kan'ami (1333-1384)

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1398 Timur's invasion of India and the sack of Delhi.

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1400 The great No dramatist of Japan, Seami, flourishes for the next forty years.

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1467 Onin war in Japan; beginning of "Warring States Japan": civil wars uninterrupted for the next century and a half break out in Japan.

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1469 Birth of Guru Nanak, founder of Sihkism.

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1498 Vasco da Gama lands on the Indian coast

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1504 Babur occupies Kabul, beginning of Mughal dynasty in India.

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1520 Portuguese embassy to Peking.

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1540 Mughal ruler, Humayun, driven from India

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1542 First Europeans visit Japan; St. Francis Xavier arrives in India.

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