Chapter Summaries
Study Guide

Romantic Age I

For class: make certain that you read : musical terminology & neo-medievalism; read, print, & bring to class: Blake, Carroll, Tennyson, & Keats
Read Arthurian Legend (course website) 

Print a copy of Blake's "O for a voice like thunder" (course website) 

Print a copy of Keats' "La Belle Dame Sans Merci" (course website) 

Print a copy of Tennyson's "The Lady of Shalott" (course website) 

To be discussed in class (not in text):
I. Romantic Age & The Pre-raphaelites: neomedieval & stereotypes
A. Tennyson: poetry, music
B. Keats: poetry, video
II. Lewis Carroll : Neomedieval nonsense in multiple languges! Jaberwock (available via internet)
Be prepared to sing and provide percussive accompaniment.
III.  Art inspires art inspires art: Music! Visuals! Poetry!
Keats, Sand, Chopin (Impromptu "Fantasie"), preraphaelites: videos, slides

The Romantic Attitude!
   "EXISTER, pour nous, c'est SENTIR" (For us, to exist is to feel.)
"If I give myself up to love, I want it to wound me deeply, to electrify me, to break my heart or to exalt me...what I want is to suffer, to go crazy..." (George Sand)

I. Intro: An aesthetic style and attitude of mind; roughly the 1850s through the 1900s; a revolt agains conventional authority, rationalism & neoclassicism of the Enlightenment and looks to the medieval Gothic Age for inspiration; a search for personal freedom; against industrialism, social convention, & church (leads to alienation); valued reason less, but included emotion and intuition as WHOLE of human experience; looked to nature for divine inspiration (Freidrich); revival of ancestral/nationalistic roots & glorification of self as hero (Delecroix: Liberty Leading the People).

II. Romantic Age Visual Art
A. The Divine in nature: what's industrialism got to do with it?
B. Landscape: What is "Romantic mysticism"?Note the role of nature in works by the following artists:
1. Constable
2. Turner: what statement is he making?
3. Friedrich
4. Zhou
5. Church
7. Bierstadt: the American West; Native America

III. Poetry
A. Ah Wordsworth: "the sponmtaneous overflow of feelings, ...from emotion recollected in tranquility." 
1. imagination & poetic language
2. Tintern Abbey: Freidrich painted ruins, Wordsworth described them in words to create visuals in the mind. 
3. the ruins of a medieval monastery
4. a paean to nature (what's a "paean"?)
B. Shelley:  Ozymandias (look this up on line): read this outloud. Several times-- especially the last three lines. Listen for the sound of the wind over the empty desert sands
C. Keats: compare to the expression of life's transience by some of the northern baroque painters

IV. Romantic Philosophy & Hegel
A. What is Dialectic? 
B. What is the ultimate goal of Hegel's Dialectic?

V. Science
A. Darwin
1. What a difference a word makes: Perhaps if he had called it "The Ascent of Man"?
But that was the point; he challenged tradition with the idea of "natural selection." What does "natural selection" mean? How is it connected to evolution and survival of an organism
2. Who was Bishop Ussher? Who was he to decree religious doctrine? Should the Divine Being punch a human-made time clock?
3. Darwin didn't deny a divine Creator, so what was all the fuss about?
4. Why were some humans uncomfortable thinking that the universe might be impersonal?
5. Why were some humans upset about being "robbed of their preminence on [the] planet"?
B. What is Social Darwinism? How did Herbert Spencer subvert and exploit Darwin's evolution by applying it socially?What were the dreadful consequences? 

V. American Romanticism
A. Transcendentalism
1. What is "holistic," and what does it have to do with Hinduism and Buddhism?
2. What does transcendentalism have to do with civil disobedience, passive resistance, Gandhi, and Martin Luther King?
B. How does Romantic Age transcendentalism and passive resistance fit into abolitionism?
1. Frederic Douglass & Sojourner Truth: brilliant achievement and self-determination; how are they heroes?
2. What does Douglass say about moral responsibility and crime in terms of slavery? Why might this make slave owners want to think twice about slavery?

 X. Romantic Age Sculpture & Architecture
A. Rude: La Marseillaise: how does this symbolize romantic age heroism and natioanlism? Note the details of this sculpture as you listen to the song "The Marseillaise" (France's national anthem--you can find a version on YouTube --sing along!! Watch the classic film Casa Blanca for Extra Credit--see/email me for details.
B. Nash: The Royal Pavilion: look at the details in the visual of this structure: how do you describe it?
1. what design elements does Nash combine?
2. What's a "pastiche"?

XI. Romantic Age Music 
A. Beethoven
1. Listen to symphony #5  
2. what's the 4-note motif?
3. How did Beethoven describe this motif?
B. Wagner: Wagner set myth to music and used musical phrases to signify specific characters. Your text has a lot of fancy words for this, and I could get in trouble with the opera police (a tough lot, they are), but a cool influence Wagner has had is heard in the music for the classic Star Wars films. Everyone recgonizes Pum-Pum-Pum-Pum-pa-pum-pum-pa-pum, and knows Darth Vader will appear, and that's pure Wagner.  

Key Terms: paean, imperialism, nationalism, Hegel's Dialectic, transcendentalism, holistic, pantheism,, passive resistence, abolition 

Sample questions from class:

1. How do Friedrich’s paintings express religious mysticism? (what do mountains, the ray’s of the setting sun, fir trees, abbey ruins symbolize?)
2. How do the Pre-rahaelites express the duality of female stereotypes (angelic, and "femme-fatale")?
3. Nonsense! How does Carroll parody the  Romantic age renewal of idealistic "neo-medievalism"? 
4. Which female steroetype Keats represent in his poem?
5. Which female stereotype does Tennyson represent in his poem?
6. How does popular composer McKennitt juxtapose a lullaby with the topic of Blakes poem? What sense or feeling does this convey to you as you listen to the words and music?
7. Art inspires art, inspires art: how do you perceive the whole as presented in class: Tennyson's poem, the Pre-raphaelites paintings, and McKennitt's & Autum's music? (If you can answer this, you'll recognize related test questions.)

Sample questions: (the test will include questions from text, Study Guide,  & class)
1. Why is Napoleon considered a "romantic hero"?
2. Why is "Faust" a "romantic hero"?
3. What is "nationalism" and "imperialism"? How do they create conflict?
4. How did George Sand’s life and works defy social convention?
5. The feeling of loyalty to a specific territory whose inhabitants share a common language and culture is called what?
6. American romantics who believed that knowledge gained through intuition surpassed knowledge gained through reasoning were called what?
7. How does George Sand contradict the female romantic age stereotype?
8. In what way was Gordon, Lord Byron himself a "romantic hero"?
9. Why would some people consider Faust to be the symbol of Western man?
10.  How do Turner's works differ from other "romantic" artists, and from  works we've seen from the baroque age?
11. The idea that species flourish because they are able to preserve certain traits that enable them to survive is called what?
12. What does “evolution by natural selection” mean?
13. What does “survival of the fittest” mean?
14. In what way was Thoreau’s life at Walden Pond an adventure in practical survival? In what way was it a mystical experience?
15. The process by which a condition (thesis) generates an opposite condition (antithesis) to produce a synthesis is called what?
16. Who was the American romantic who developed the notion of passive resistance later adopted by Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.?
17.  What did Romanticism rebel against?
18. Did Social Darwinists use the theory of evolution to justify imperialism and economic exploitation? What assumptions did they make?
19. What poet asserts that pleasure is fleeting and that art alone records the pleasure of the past?
20.  Who was the author who retreated to Walden Pond to write “a handbook for living”?
21.  Does Darwin’s conception of evolution indicate that it must have occurred over vast periods of time?
22. The misinterpretation of Darwin by which the “survival of the fittest” is applied to social groups instead of species is called what?
Check the text website for Multiple Choice Quizzes that accompany each chapter.

Copyright by 2008 D.A.Maukonen, MLS, University of Central Florida. All rights reserved. Certain images and material may be copyrights of their respective owners.
Last modified February 27th, 2010